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How long will the world turn a blind eye to the Indian atrocities in Kashmir? When will the world listen to the pleas of innocent Kashmiris for their legitimate right to self-determination? #KashmirBlackDay

74 years of illegal occupation and the suppression of Kashmiris’ right to self-determination by India has very few parallels in contemporary history. #KashmirBlackDay

A long saga of repression - custodial killings, arrests, destruction of homes, businesses, growing number of widows, orphans, gang rapes, pellet gun injuries. #KashmirBlackDay

By introducing new ‘Domicile Law’ in March 2020, India granted over 4.2 million domiciles to non-kashmiris. Changing the demographic structure of a disputed territory is gross violation of human rights. #KashmirBlackDay

We pay homage to the sacrifices of our Kashmiri brethren & reiterate our unflinching & steadfast moral, diplomatic & political support for their legitimate right to self determination. #KashmirBlackDay

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Breast cancer
Breast cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women in the U.S. Breast cancer refers to cancers originating from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk. Worldwide, breast cancer comprises 10.4% of all cancer incidences among women, making it the second most common type of non-skin cancer (after lung cancer) and the fifth most common cause of cancer death. In 2004, breast cancer caused 519,000 deaths worldwide (7% of cancer deaths; almost 1% of all deaths). Breast cancer is about 100 times more common in women than in men, although males tend to have poorer outcomes due to delays in diagnosis.
There are several types of tumors that may develop within different areas of the breast. Most tumors are the result of benign (non-cancerous) changes within the breast. For example, fibrocystic change is a non-cancerous condition in which women develop cysts (accumulated packets of fluid), fibrosis (formation of scar-like connective tissue), lumpiness, and areas of thickening, tenderness, or breast pain. Most breast cancers begin in the cells that line the ducts (ductal cancers). Some begin in the cells that line the lobules (lobular cancers), while a small number start in the other tissues. Non-Invasive Breast Cancer cells that are confined to the ducts and do not invade surrounding fatty and connective tissues of the breast. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is the most common form of non-invasive breast cancer (90%). Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is less common and considered a marker for increased breast cancer risk. Invasive breast cancer cells that break through the duct and lobular wall and invade the surrounding fatty and connective tissues of the breast. Cancer can be invasive without being metastatic (spreading) to the lymph nodes or other organs.Infiltrating ductal carcinoma is also known as invasive ductal carcinoma. IDC begins in the milk ducts of the breast and penetrates the wall of the duct, invading the fatty tissue of the breast and possibly other regions of the body. IDC is the most common type of breast cancer, accounting for 80% of breast cancer diagnoses Medullary carcinoma: Medullary carcinoma is an invasive breast cancer that forms a distinct boundary between tumor tissue and normal tissue. Only 5% of breast cancers are medullary carcinoma.. Mutinous carcinoma: Also called colloid carcinoma, mutinous carcinoma is a rare breast cancer formed by the mucus-producing cancer cells. Tubular carcinomas are a special type of infiltrating (invasive) breast carcinoma. Women with tubular carcinoma generally have a better prognosis than women with more common types of invasive carcinoma. Tubular carcinomas accou-nt for around 2% of breast cancer diagnoses.Inflammatory breast cancer is the appearance of inflamed breasts (red and warm) with dimples and/or thick ridges caused by cancer cells blocking lymph vessels or channels in the skin over the breast. Though inflammatory breast cancer is rare (accounting for only 1% of breast cancers), it is extremely fast-growing.
It is recommended that women between 40 and 44 have the option to start screening with a mammogram every year. Women 45 to 54 should get mammograms every year. Women 55 and older can switch to a mammogram every other year, or they can choose to continue yearly mammograms. Screening should continue as long as a woman is in good health and is expected to live at least 10 more years.
All women should understand what to expect when getting a mammogram for breast cancer screening – what the test can and cannot do. Today there are so many approaches, which can be made for the treatment of the cancer of breast such as surgery, radiation therapy chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and recently nanotechnology and gene therapy. With advances in screening, diagnosis, and treatment, the death rate for breast cancer has declined. In fact, about 90% of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer will survive for at least five years. Research is ongoing to develop even more effective screening and treatment programs.
—Sajida Anwer, Quetta